BOSTON PUBLIC LIBRARY

SMITHSONIAN

YEAR

1967

Smithsonian Year 1967

ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION FOR THE YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1967, INCLUDING THE FINANCIAL REPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE OF THE BOARD OF REGENTS

SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION

Washington 1967

,4

The Smithsonian Institution

The Smithsonian Institution was created by act of Congress in 1846, in accordance with the terms of the will of James Smithson, of England, who in 1826 bequeathed his property to the United States of America "to found at Washington, under the name of the Smithsonian Institu- tion, an establishment for the increase and diffusion of knowledge among men." In receiving the property and accepting the trust, Congress determined that the Federal Government was without authority to administer the trust directly, and, therefore, constituted an "establishment," whose statutory members are "the President, the Vice President, the Chief Justice, and the heads of the executive departments."

The Establishment

Lyndon B. Johnson, President of the United States

Hubert H. Humphrey, Vice President of the United States

Earl Warren, Chief Justice of the United States

Dean Rusk, Secretary of State

Henry H. Fowler, Secretary of the Treasury

Robert S. McNamara, Secretary of Defense

Ramsey Clark, Attorney General

Lawrence F. O'Brien, Postmaster General

Stewart L. Udall, Secretary of Interior

Orville L. Freeman, Secretary o" Agriculture

Alexander B. Trobridge, Secretary of Commerce

W. Willard Wirtz, Secretary of Labor

John W. Gardner, Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare

Robert C. Weaver, Secretary of Housing and Urban Development

Alan S. Boyd, Secretary of Transportation

Board of Regents and Secretary

June 30, 1967

Presiding Officer ex officio

Chancellor

Regents of the Institution

Executive Committee

Secretary Assistant Secretaries

Lyndon B. Johnson, President of the

United States Earl Warren, Chief Justice of the

United States Earl Warren, Chief Justice of the

United States, Chancellor Hubert H. Humphrey, Vice President

of the United States Clinton P. Anderson, Member of the

Senate J. William Fulbright, Member of the

Senate Hugh Scott, Member of the Senate Frank T. Bow, Member of the House of

Representatives Michael J. Kirwan, Member of the

House of Representatives George H. Mahon, Member of the

House of Representatives John Nicholas Brown, citizen of Rhode

Island William A. M. Burden, citizen of New

York Robert V. Fleming, citizen of Washing- ton, D.C. Crawford H. Greenewalt, citizen of

Delaware Caryl P. Haskins, citizen of Washington,

DC. Jerome C. Hunsaker, citizen of Massa- chusetts Robert V. Fleming, Chairman, Clinton

P. Anderson, Caryl P. Haskins S. Dillon Ripley James Bradley, Assistant Secretary Sidney R. Galler, Assistant Secretary

(Science)

A listing of the professional staff of the Smithsonian Institution, its bureaus, and its offices, appears in Appendix 7.

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The annual report of the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution appears under the general title Smithsonian Year.

It contains the reports of the bureaus and branches of the Institution, including that of the United States National Museum. This report on the activities of its component Museums of Natural History and of History and Technology, was last issued as a separate publication for fiscal year 1964, appearing in 1965. Issuance of the annual report of the Secretary is no longer followed by appear- ance of a greenbound volume containing a General Appendix of articles in the sciences and the arts. The last of the old series is that for 1964. Reprints of each of the bureau reports are available. To some of them are appended tabulated, statistical, and other information of primary interest to those concerned with the particular field covered, and which for reasons of space can no longer be carried in this volume.

SMITHSONIAN PUBLICATION 4729

Contents

Page

The Establishment ii

The Smithsonian Institution iii

Statement by the Secretary 1

Smithsonian Activities Natural Sciences 43

Office of Ecology 45

Office of Oceanography and. Limnology 63

Museum of Natural History 73

Research and Publication 77

Systematics 77

Anthropology 78

Botany. . 87

Entomology 90"

Invertebrate Zoology 93

Mineral Sciences 96

Paleobiology 99

Vertebrate Zoology 104

The Collections 109

Exhibits 125

Staff Publications 129

National Zoological Park 155

Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute 171

Radiation Biology Laboratory 183

Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory 193

Optical Actronomy 193

Radio Astronomy 195

Gamma Ray Astronomy 196

Theoretical Astrophysics 198

Planetary Studies 202

Flight Experiments 206

Meteorites and Cosmic Dust 207

Comets and Meteors 211

Historical Astronomy 212

Central Bureaus 212

Staff Changes 213

Staff Papers 214

Page

Smithsonian Activities History and Art 229

Museum of History and Technology 231

Research and Publication 237

Science and Technology 237

Arts and Manufactures 241

Civil History 246

American Studies 251

Armed Forces History 254

The Collections 259

Exhibits 271

Staff Publications 277

National Air and Space Museum 283

National Armed Forces Museum Advisory Board 293

Freer Gallery of Art 297

National Collection of Fine Arfs 307

National Portrait Gallery 325

National Gallery of Art 337

John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts 357

Joseph H. Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden 375

Other Smithsonian Activities, Programs, and Services 379

United States National Museum 381

Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service 383

Conservation-Analytical Laboratory 388

Office of Exhibits 389

Office of the Registrar 396

International Exchange Service 399

Science Information Exchange 401

Smithsonian Institution Libraries 405

Smithsonian Institution Press 409

Office of International Activities 413

Office of Education and Training 427

Office of Public Affairs 431

Smithsonian Museum Service ! 433

Smithsonian Associates 435

Administrative Support Services 439

Appendix 443

1 . Report of the Executive Committee of the Board of Regents . . 445

2. Smithsonian Foreign Currency Program Grants 471

3. Publications of the Smithsonian Press 475

4. Smithsonian Associates 487

5. Members of the Smithsonian Council 489

6. Research Participation Programs, Appointments 495

7. Staff of the Smithsonian Institution 501

Statement by the Secretary

Statement by the Secretary S. Dillon Ripley

Come years ago, in conversation, the late Robert Oppen- heimer remarked to me that he felt that men in the future would find the single area of greatest discovery in biology. Oppenheimer was of course thinking primarily of the then ex- citing discoveries in molecular biology, the end effects of which, while perhaps inevitably upon us, will not be revealed for many years.

As a biologist, one might now question whether there is not another area where discoveries rather than refinements await us. To me it seems that the single area which needs the greatest amount of attention from discoverers is that uncharted and almost unknown field which might be called social biology. The field is unknown and uncharted because it is not a specialty, and today most scientists are trained for narrow specialties. Biologists are concerned primarily with laboratory or field studies of animal and plant species. Sociologists are concerned primarily with the study of the origins and history and constitu- tion of human society. In universities the departments of the two disciplines are usually in separate buildings, and in libraries the books they use tend to come from different parts of the stacks.

In fact, sociologists labor under the disadvantage of being somewhat luxated; are they scientists or are they humanists? It is a symbol of the age that they should feel thus dislocated. It is of course unnecessary. Similarly, some thoughtful biologists tend today to feel slightly uncomfortable about being scientists. Science in the public mind has come to be associated almost exclusively with the physical sciences or with medicine. Scien- tists are white-coated men, either possessed of a Batman-like syndrome, about to fly off into space, or else all-knowing, wise versions of Dr. Kildare. In any case, biologists who have to do

1

2 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1967

with physico-chemical processes involving the components of a single cell, or those who are involved with medical science, can perhaps feel closer to the physical scientists and to medicine.

But biologists associated with natural phenomena in gross, external terms, with population biology and the dynamics of large systems, and with much of what is today called ecology (a badly misused word in most cases) as well as paleobiologists and evolutionists many of these sorts of biologists find them- selves somewhat dislocated. Perhaps they are in danger of be- coming humanists? Perhaps indeed the scientific sociologists and the humanist biologists are approaching each other, figures on a darkened and uncharted stage.

When one says that there is an area here which perhaps contains the single, greatest problem that man faces today, one is referring to problems of human survival and of morality. Here it must be said that many scientists are greatly troubled about the responsibilities and the integrity of science. Scientists and sociologists alike work in disciplines where study brings them a knowledge of the social consequences of the discovery of new technologies and of new principles about behavior. By training, however, most scientists tend to be cautious about ascribing broad implications to the results of narrowly defined and controlled experiments. Science-minded sociologists tend to have kindred feelings, and often prefer to remain aloof from the dangerous area where theoretical results are correlated with non- controlled situations.

And yet there is a responsibility to speak out. As the condi- tions of the environment deteriorate, as the social disorders of the age deepen, the special relationship between the scientist's social responsibilities and his general duties of citizenship grows critical. As Commoner says, "If the scientist, directly or by infer- ences from his actions, lays claim to a special responsibility for the resolution of the policy issues which relate to technology, he may, in effect, prevent others from performing their own political duties. If the scientist fails in his duty to inform citizens, they are precluded from the gravest acts of citizenship and lose their right of conscience."*

''Barry Commoner. Science and Survival. New York, 1 966, p. 1 30.

STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY 3

In 1847 Joseph Henry, meditating upon the course of the Smithsonian Institution, wrote: "To effect the greatest amount of good, the organization should be such as to enable the Institution to produce results in the way of increasing and diffusing knowl- edge, which cannot be produced by the existing institutions in our country." What is there that we in the Smithsonian can think upon which would illumine the basic problems confronting social biology?

There are certainly three paths along which we might travel toward illumination : one leads to the study of terrestrial environ- ment, another to the study of our social environment, and the third to the study of man as an evolving species.

The disorder of our age is graphically illustrated by the slow degrading of man's terrestrial environment. There is something inherently wrong with man's relations with his environment. Nature suffers continually in an undeclared war. Man, animated by hunger for profit or for spectacular action, continually erodes our landscape. Many feel indeed that this is appropriate, that man and nature can never live in harmony. Thomas Hardy said, "nature and man can never be friends." Must we then kill off our enemy and in so doing kill off ourselves?

Biologists have a social duty to alert citizens to the inescap- able results of such mass suicide. In this Institution we have in particular one great scientific resource to bring to bear upon this problem. Our sorts of biologists are concerned with the quality of the environment, for they are concerned with sys- tematics, with setting into categories organisms that are inescap- ably a part of the particular environments within which they, as species, live. The assembled data about species in relation to their environments assumes an historic and important relevance to the environment as it is today. That is, the recordings of sys- tematists become a series of benchmarks against which modern environments can be gauged. To put it in crude terms we know for example that the American mountain lion was exterminated from all the eastern seaboard States by the late 1800s, except for the fastnesses of Florida and parts of West Virginia and Ver- mont. Today the principal population of mountain lions survives precariously only in parts of the Sierra Nevada and the high mountains of the West. We also know why. We know the food habits, the predator-prey food chain, the range requirements,

4 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1967

the amount of "leaving alone" which a mountain lion requires in order to live and reproduce its kind. In a similar way we know the requirements of a whole series of animal and plant species, and what happened to them when these requirements were not met.

All these situations are similar in that a certain formula is involved. A proportion of one or another sets of conditions is required, without which a certain species will not occur. The declining ratio of natural to man-made conditions over the con- tinent creates multiple effects which can be measured or simu- lated through models. The results, when arrayed against the resources of the planet, surely could tell us much of the ability of various species to survive. The results also tell us something of man's plasticity and tolerance, and of his ability to survive the changes he is introducing into the environment.

One of the keys to American success in foreign aid and indeed in foreign relations will be the degree to which American plan- ners pay attention to the knowledge of environmental problems already possessed by American scientists. At present there is little if any indication that aid planners or foreign policy planners have ever heard of ecology or would know how to talk to a systematic biologist if they met one. And yet in areas of the tropical world today ecologists and systematists are far more capable of predicting the effects of change in the environment than are engineers and dam builders or agriculturists. The proposed International Biological Program unknown to most planners or policy makers has within it the capacity of mobiliz- ing field biologists into a concerted effort to understand the present state of our terrestrial environment all over the world. The resulting information could be utilized in a way which might provide vital criteria, real benchmarks against which to set our standards for survival for the future. Our traditional economic and political aims, keyed to commercial development and the promotion of consumer consciousness, have blinded us to our own survival.

Another disorder of this age is graphically illustrated by the decline of social and moral values in our cities. The problems of deteriorating environment and of social disorder are related. As the landscape suffers, man becomes less humane. As Hoffer, speaking of our increased command over nature, says, "In many

STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY 5

parts of the world the taming of nature by rapid industrialization gave rise to degrees of social barbarization."* If man cannot live in cities as a humane individual, then he cannot survive. Thus social biologists have a duty to alert citizens to the inescapable results of urbanization.

In this Institution, a world center for anthropology, there should be a whole series of benchmarks which, interpreted by social anthropologists, could produce models of stress, crowding phenomena, aggression and hostility. Our view derived from these data could be of great use, indeed ensynoptic.

The Institution contains within it the national archives for anthropology. It is the greatest actual repository of data on American Indians. It should be the home for urgent anthropol- ogy activities throughout the world, the salvage of ethnographic and linguistic records before they become extinct. We are answering Professor Levi-Strauss' challenge to us at our Bi- centennial Seminars in 1965. Already the Wenner-Gren Foun- dation for Anthropological Research has responded with a grant to the Institution for commencing these studies. Within these materials lie the seeds of invaluable comparative research on man's ability to survive the disorders of this age.

It may be germane here to refer to the fact that the Smith- sonian's Office of Anthropology is emerging as a center of inter- national anthropology through its organization of imaginative new programs. In the past two years the consolidation of the former Department of Anthropology and the Bureau of Ameri- can Ethnology has been accomplished. A survey, in consultation with a distinguished panel of anthropologists, has helped us establish urgent tasks and set guidelines for the future. With the help of Professor Sol Tax, special advisor for anthropology, the chairman of the Office- Richard Woodbury until early this year, now Saul Riesenberg -and the curators have been planning three basic programs. One of the most fundamental of these programs is that already mentioned, in urgent anthro- pology. A second is a new, badly needed, cooperative project, the revised Handbook of North American Indians, which will require perhaps ten years to complete and may run to fifteen volumes. A third and unique program is in ancient technologies.

*Eric Hoffer. The Temper of Our Time. New York, 1967.

6 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1967

Using modern scientific techniques in the study of such crafts as metal working, textile manufacture, and pottery making, and working in conjunction with laboratories such as the Battelle Memorial Institute as well as our own Conservation-Analytical Laboratory, we hope for great increases in our ability to learn from archeological finds.

As an archive for anthropological science, the Smithsonian must mobilize every resource to support anthropological in- formation exchange, cooperative teaching, and the coordination of our basic understanding of man's place in the world. In this connection we should review the possibility, raised over the years by our leading anthropologists, of creating a modern Museum of Man. The emergence of new nations, as Professor Tax has pointed out, signals the end of the era when there was "civilized man" who ruled another kind of man called "natural man," and often displayed him in a museum along with precious jewels, rocks, and dinosaurs. All cultures and all humans should be accorded equal dignity and respect, and for this they deserve a museum of their own.

Man has not changed genetically in fifty thousand years. Man is, however, extraordinarily plastic and tolerant in his individual response to life itself. The key to much of this occurs in the experience of the maturing individual. Here again this Institution has an enormous untapped resource, our visitors, who each year devotedly come in their millions, bringing their children. None of us has successfully discerned the way toward asking the questions of our visitors which might teach us of their inherent or innate interests. Here lie seeds for a fertile study which we intend to pursue. From it perhaps we may learn something of the processes of conceptualization and synthesis that lie at the very heart of the problem of the use of knowledge.

Ultimately, if we are to increase knowledge, it must be dif- fused. This year marks the renaissance of the Smithsonian Insti- tution Press as an earnest of our intent to adhere to first princi- ples. As Professor Henry envisaged, the Institution should publish treatises consisting "of valuable memoirs translated from foreign languages, or of articles prepared under the direction of the Institution, or procured by offering premiums for the best ex- position of a given subject." The state of knowledge of social

STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY 7

biology will be enhanced this year, we hope, through the pub- lication of the second Smithsonian Annual, the results of the February 1967 conference on "The Quality of Man's Environ- ment," partially supported by grants from the Ford Foundation and the Taconic Foundation. The first catalog of publications of the Smithsonian Institution Press has just been issued.

Last summer, in August 1966, under the innovative leader- ship of Charles Blitzer, Director of the Smithsonian programs in education and training, a conference, supported by a grant from the U.S. Office of Education, was held by the Institution on the subject of museums and education. The results, edited by Professor Eric Larrabee, will be published shortly by the Smithsonian's Press. Meanwhile, a suggestion emanating from discussions at that conference is about to be put into effect. One's concern with museums is partly directed toward the prob- lem of who goes to see them. Most people go to museums be- cause they are already won over to the proposition that a visit is worthwhile. Many go in classes. Still others go because it is a social duty or, like taking a vitamin pill, a nostrum for culture. But many people who could be greatly benefited by going to museums who could have latent interests aroused or who would be ripe for open education, undidactic, unstressed never get to museums. Some live in poor neighborhoods out of which they do not travel. Some are inherently hostile toward marble pal- aces. The suggestion is, then, that we help a local committee in some urban area plan a neighborhood museum.

With the stimulating aid of grants from the Carnegie Cor- poration of New York, the Meyer Foundation of Washington, and the Richardson Fund of Connecticut, we are helping a neighborhood council to create the Anacostia Neighborhood Museum in southeast Washington. Already plans for exhibits and participation programs have been advanced by the Neigh- borhood Museum Committee and the Director, John Kinard. These seem full of promise and interest, and the Museum is opening officially September 15, 1967.

Another important experiment in education is that of an exhibit for the blind, or, as the term is, sightless persons. With the aid of a planning grant from the Vocational Rehabilitation Administration, Mr. Blitzer has been working with Dr. Brian

8 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1967

O'Doherty in planning an exhibit which will be stimulating not only to sightless but also to sighted persons.

As Professor Derek Price has recently stated, in the field of the history of science the Institution is preeminent for its re- sources in objects and in skilled research staff. Among its greatest treasures is a notable collection of letters and manuscripts of Joseph Henry, who was selected by the National Historical Publications Commission of the National Archives as the first scientist whose papers should be published under national auspices. It is appropriate, therefore, that the Smithsonian, in happy conjunction with the American Philosophical Society and the National Academy of Sciences, should have determined to publish the papers of Joseph Henry. Aided by a vital grant from the National Science Foundation, this project has now commenced under the editorship of Dr. Nathan Reingold. A guiding committee of associated specialists has been formed. In this connection, it has also been heartening to observe the progress made by the Institution's talented archivist Samuel T. Suratt in developing our manuscript collections for use by historical scholars.

Members of the staff of the Museum of History and Tech- nology themselves continue to produce important work, such as Robert Multhauf's The Origins of Chemistry (Oldbourne, 1966). In addition, work at the forefront of modern technology con- tinues with a comprehensive study aimed at documenting the development of the art of the computer through interviews with scientists and inventors, as well as through collecting printed and manuscript material relating to the subject.

Additional monographs of our historians include Walter Cannon's Social History of Science in Victorian England (to be published by Routledge and Kegan Paul) ; Bernard Finn's Sources of Thermoelectricity (to be published by Johnson) ; and Sami K. Hamarneh's Catalogue of Arabic Pharmaceutical Manu- scripts in the British Museum; as well as Monte Calvert's The Mechanical Engineer in America, 1830-1910 (The Johns Hopkins Press) .

The Smithsonian Institution has been asked on numerous occasions this year to join in planning for the bicentennial observances of the American Revolution in 1976. The Secretary is a member of the Federal Council on the Arts and Humanities,

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Photo Courtesy W. H. Watkins

Secretary of Transportation Alan S. Boyd (below, left) and Mrs. George H. Mahon, wife of the Smithsonian Regent, and acting Secretary James Bradley (fourth left) chat with Bill Suitor of Bell Aerosystems Company, who demon- strated (above) a rocket belt on the Mall, April 1, 1967, during the Pageant marking the establishment of the new Department of Transportation.

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Photo Courtesy W. H. Watkins

At the Pageant of Transportation, Don Piccard ascended in a 50-foot hot-air balloon as Suitor demonstrated the rocket belt, and (below) the Porter Family Puppeteers entertained young people.

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STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY

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The Smithsonian's 1 880 hotel omnibus (below) and the autos of the National Capital Region Antique Automobile Association represented stages in the progress of transportation.

12

SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1967

The U.S. Air Force Bagpipe Band marched, and (below) the Bell Aerosystems Company air cushion vehicle Hydroskimmer was demonstrated at the Pageant of Transportation.

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STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY 13

charged by the Congress to plan for national celebrations of an historic nature. In addition the Secretary is a member ex officio of the President's "American Revolution Bicentennial Com- mission." In its April 21, 1967, report, the House Appropriations Committee reiterated its desire and intent that the Smithsonian Institution shall take an active part in the celebration of the bicentennial of the American Revolution.

There are two central physical frames of reference for the Institution's participation, one the new Museum of History and Technology on the Mall, the other the authorized but still unconstructed Armed Forces Museum and Park. In the first, a series of exhibits and commemorative publications over the next eight years will gradually document the coming of the Revolu- tion. Already, two years ago, a first exhibit was held commem- orating the Stamp Act, and this year an exhibit on George Mason and the Bill of Rights was prepared. Next year an exhibit covering the Townshend Acts of 1 767 and the arrival of the British Customs Commissioners will be shown. In this way, a gradual procession of special exhibits relating to the development of the Revolution will be constructed. In addition it is hoped that Congress will authorize the construction of two small special pavilions to encompass additional historic exhibits of the greatest importance for the Bicentennial year.

The National Armed Forces Museum and Park could in itself be a valuable adjunct to the visitor's traversing of the eastern seaboard from Boston to Williamsburg for the commem- oration of the events of 1776. On the road from Washington via the Woodrow Wilson Bridge to Mount Vernon and on to Williamsburg, the Park, to be situated near Fort Foote, would be a valuable intermediate point. It is hoped that a series of important discussions on the causes of war and peace can be held during the next year which might help to set the themes of this Congressionally authorized museum.

In the coming year two events of artistic and historic im- portance will occur in Washington. The first, in the spring of 1968, will be the reopening in new quarters in the old Patent Office building of the National Collection of Fine Arts. This should be a momentous event. Moving operations, commenced in early 1967, will have consumed a year. Meanwhile, because of

14 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1967

the energetic work of Director David W. Scott and his staff, and because of enhanced public understanding of the role of this important art gallery, substantial augmentations to the collection have been made, most notably the S. C. Johnson Wax Company collection of contemporary American artists' works, valued at approximately a million dollars, and the Paul Manship collec- tion, as well as many individual gifts. The National Collection of Fine Arts, now to be finally in a home of its own, will create a major new artistic influence in the life of the capital.

In the latter part of 1968 an event of historic importance will be the opening of the United States' first National Portrait Gallery. This is still an organization in its infancy, but given handsome and stylish quarters and its nucleus of important paintings and sculptural likenesses, it is the earnest hope of the National Portrait Gallery Commission, endorsed by the Regents, that the Gallery will attract gifts as well as Congressional interest appropriate to its nascent stature and central importance as a repository for historical and biographical iconography.

The work of the U.S. National Museum under its Director, Frank Taylor, is central to some of the critical problems of our age. Never before have museums enjoyed such a wealth of opportunities or faced such trials as those contained in the worldwide crisis in education and the bewildering search for life values and standards. Educators are beginning to recognize that museums provide much of the reality— lacking in classroom and books- needed to stimulate curiosity and the will to learn. Museums provide opportunities for people of all ages and con- ditions to continue to grow with the inspiration of the works of great artists, scholars, and patriots, the products of past and present civilizations, and the physical evidence of the wonders of nature.

On June 20, 1967, President Johnson wrote to the Secre- tary— in his capacity as Chairman of the Federal Council on the Arts and Humanities requesting the Council to study the status of American museums and to recommend ways to support and strengthen them. The President's letter, which showed his awareness of both the problems and the potentialities of museums, presents us with an immensely exciting challenge :

America's five thousand museums are among our most precious cultural and educational resources. Their collections, their trained

STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY 15

staffs, and their facilities contribute immeasurably to the enrich- ment of the nation's life and to educational advancement at every level.

Not only do imaginative museum exhibits excite the curiosity of millions ; many scholars in science, in the arts and the humani- ties— rely upon museum collections for their raw material.

Attendance at U.S. museums has already passed 300,000,000 visits a year. In many places, inadequate museum budgets and facilities are under severe strain. In the future, the nation's museums will be expected to reach and serve additional millions. Accelerated research programs will cause more and more scholars to seek access to museum collections.

Our museums have shown their willingness to join with other institutions to promote the "increase and diffusion of knowledge among men." Certainly they should have the wherewithal to do that great work effectively.

We are eager to respond to this challenge.

For 125 years the Smithsonian has shared its experience and resources with museums of the United States and abroad. In the past year an entirely new volume and quality of museum assist- ance was reached. A start was made to investigate the funda- mentals of the interaction between the museum visitor and exhibited objects, and to reach, through neighborhood museums and traveling exhibits, those people who do not visit museums. Evaluation of the museum experience, experimentation with communication through senses other than sight, and a study of museum audiences and their needs, were undertaken.

The National Museum Act of 1966, passed by the Congress and approved by the President in October 1966, reaffirmed the Smithsonian's role of assistance to museums and authorized appropriations to meet needs and to study problems common to all museums. In the Act, Congress recognized that museums are important elements of the cultural and educational development of the United States.

Though no appropriations have yet been made under the Act, it has stimulated requests for aid from every State and a score of nations. In the spirit of the Act, the Smithsonian has entered into agreements with other museums to train science- museum technicians, has participated in the first Museum Con- ference for Small Museums, in Texas, and has provided many on-the-spot consultative services ranging from the direction of

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Secretary Ripley presents photographs of Korean exhibits in the Museum of Natural History to His Excellency II Kwon Chung, Prime Minister of Korea, at a reception in his honor in the Museum of History and Technology.

the planning of acquisitions and interpretation for a large museum department (at Oakland, California) to the structuring of a workshop on exhibits preparation for a community (in Charleston, West Virginia) of small museums which are con- ducted largely with volunteer services.

In cooperation with officers of the American Association of Museums representations have been made to Government agencies justifying direct Federal aid for the construction of museum facilities on the basis of the increased demands made upon museums by educational institutions stimulated by the Federal aid available to schools. In addition new Federal aid has prompted schools to take advantage of museums as supple- mentary teaching centers and to use them for curriculum improvement and enrichment.

At the request of the Minister of Education of the Republic of Korea and of the Director of the Pacific Science Board of the National Academy of Sciences, the Smithsonian participated in the Symposium on a Korean National Science Museum and supported the attendance at Seoul of a number of museum professionals from other institutions. The report of the Sym-

STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY 17

posium recommended a planning study for which the Korean Government has since appropriated the equivalent of $25,000. A newly formed foundation, The American Friends of the Korean National Science Cultural Center, under the direction of Joseph A. Patterson, former Director of the American Asso- ciation of Museums, is endeavoring to obtain the balance of the support required for the study.

The attendance of the Chairman of the United States National Committee of the International Council of Museums at the I COM Cairo Conference on Museum Exhibition was supported. Progress in the planning for a regional laboratory to produce exhibits on science and technology for developing countries was set back by the war in the Middle East. The Secretary of the Smithsonian is now a member of the ICOM Executive Committee and one of its Vice Presidents.

The cooperative publishing program with the American Association of Museums was continued, with the Smithsonian Institution Press undertaking distribution of the Museums Directory of the United States and Canada and with an agreement to share the cost of the publication of the revision of the manual, Museum Registration Methods, by Dorothy H. Dudley and Irma Bezold. A more substantial share was assumed in the work of tabulating the returns from the questionnaire on museum education which was sponsored jointly by the American Association of Museums, the United States Office of Education, and the Smithsonian Institution.

One year of use of the series of teaching exhibits on the elementary physics of light for 4th- to 6th-grade students was completed in three schools of the Fairfax (Virginia) County School System. The results obtained from these exhibits were universally approved by the teachers and principals who observed them. Many side effects resulted from the experiment, such as increasing the self-reliance of students who had their first learning experiences as individuals away from the classroom, and the stimulation of determined nonreaders to learn to read. The Prince William County Schools have requested the exhibits for next year and have undertaken to provide a thorough and credible evaluation test as part of the County's program under Title III of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965.

18 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1967

The Smithsonian Council assembled twice, in October and again in March, for discussions with the Secretary and members of the professional staff. Dr. Ralph E. Alston, one of the initial Council members from the University of Texas, died February 17, 1967. Jan LaRue, Professor of Music at the Graudate School of Arts and Sciences of New York University, and Elting Morison, Acting Master of Ezra Stiles College at Yale Univer- sity, joined the Council during the year.

At the October meeting members discussed the development of a center for scholars in Washington and the relations of such a center to the consortium of local universities. Subcommittees met with members of the department of science and technology and heard reports of current Smithsonian activities from the National Portrait Gallery and the staff of the Office of Anthro- pology. Among other subjects treated by the Council were: the problem of managing special exhibits and public service projects, the selection of post-doctoral research associates, the possibility of forming a union library catalog within the center for scholars, and the extent to which museum staff members should engage in graduate -level teaching. The Secretary led a discussion of the attributes of museum scholars compared to their university colleagues and the problem of the place of museum objects in scholarship.

At the second meeting there was further discussion of the Smithsonian libraries and of the proposal for a union catalog serving all Washington libraries. The Council heard reports from Eugene Wallen on Smithsonian oceanographic activities and from Peter Farb, designer of the hall of insects for the Museum of Natural History. Frank Taylor presented a report on recent experiments in museum practices and the organiza- tional changes indicated by a modernized exhibits program. At the dinner concluding the meetings, Mrs. Adelyn Breeskin, our distinguished consultant in modern art and education, spoke on the present role of our galleries and museums in fostering an appreciation of art.

The long continuing effort of the Smithsonian Institution and other institutions and individuals to effect United States membership in the International Centre at Rome for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property has made notable progress. The Department of State has said that

STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY 19

it will support United States membership in the Centre (which is an international organization of member states) and sug- gested that the Smithsonian undertake to obtain the legislation authorizing the membership. To this end the Smithsonian held a number of meetings of representatives of interested institutions and agencies who have indicated a uniform support of U.S. membership. The legislation necessary to authorize membership has been drafted for introduction in Congress during the current session. Both the United States and the Centre would gain from U.S. membership and the worldwide task of preserving cultural objects and paintings would be greatly aided by an increase of research, training, consultation, and the dissemination of knowl- edge of advances in scientific conservation.

A start has now been made in developing the Arts and Industries building as the renamed Smithsonian Exposition Hall. Exhibits which are outside the scope of the interests of particular Smithsonian elements but which have substantial social interest were held : the exhibit of work of the young men and women of the Job Corps was one ; another was the collection of present day appliqued molas produced for sale by the San Bias Indians.

The Smithsonian Institution's Traveling Exhibition Service has circulated 108 exhibitions during the year, including the tremendously successful "Art Treasures of Turkey." Among its innovative projects, the Service has implemented an art program for District of Columbia schools on a matching-fund basis with with the National Endowment for the Arts, through the D.C. Recreation Department. Seven schools were involved, with seven exhibitions redistributed five times.

The general public's insatiable quest for information on every subject was reflected again this year in letters of inquiry and letters transmitting items for identification. These communi- cations, coming particularly from elementary and secondary students and numbering 250 to 275 a week, were received and processed through the Office of the Registrar. Dinosaurs re- mained the most popular subject, with American Indians run- ning a close second, followed by Stradivarius violins, coins, and requests for information on early Americana. The NBC Smith- sonian television series generated a sizable influx of questions relating to the subject matter of the programs. Typically, one

20 SMITHSONIAN YEAR 1967

young man wrote, "I love your television shows but I like the one on meteorites best. Please send me . . . ."

The shipping office completed a most active year, having processed 14,947 incoming and outgoing pieces, totaling 1,079,702 pounds. Among the interesting and significant types of cargo handled were 16,000 pounds of whale bones and skulls carried by motor freight from California; the 15,000-pound El Taco, Campo del Cielo meteorite, shipped back to the Smith- sonian from Germany after cutting, and later, by special arrange- ment, returned to Argentina together with a model of the original specimen; and a collection of Mexican coins weighing 4,000 pounds that was successfully moved by combined air and armored car service on a rigid schedule and security basis. Valuable pieces of art for the National Collection of Fine Arts' special shows, a 25,000-pound McMillan synchrotron, a chariot dated 1825, and a fragile Flemish marquetry cabinet were also transported through careful and painstaking efforts of the staff.

Maintaining the high quality and level of exhibits produc- tivity of the past several years, the Office of Exhibits of the United States National Museum opened six new permanent exhibition halls to the general public during the year— including the first two halls of the Institution's unique Growth of the United States exhibition in the